Essay on pakistan festivals

Kumaoni Holi in Uttarakhand includes a musical affair. In Baithki Holi and Khari Holi, people sing songs with a touch of melody, fun, and spiritualism. These songs are essentially based on classical ragas. The songs are sung in a particular sequence depending on the time of day; for instance, at noon the songs are based on Peelu, Bhimpalasi and Sarang ragas, while evening songs are based on the ragas such as Kalyan, Shyamkalyan and Yaman. The songs of the Khari Holi are sung by the people, who, sporting traditional white churidar payajama and kurta , dance in groups to the tune of ethnic musical instruments such as the dhol and hurka.

The Cheer is a bonfire with a green Paiya tree branch in the middle. The Cheer of every village and neighborhood is rigorously guarded as rival mohallas try to playfully steal each other's cheer. The colours used on Holi are derived from natural sources. Holi is celebrated with great gusto much in the same way all across North India. The festival is celebrated in a dignified manner by placing the icons of Krishna and Radha on a picturesquely decorated palanquin which is then taken round the main streets of the city or the village.

On the Dol Purnima day in the early morning, students dress up in saffron-coloured or pure white clothes and wear garlands of fragrant flowers. They sing and dance to the accompaniment of musical instruments, such as the ektara , dubri , and Veena.


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The devotees take turns to swing them while women dance around the swing and sing devotional songs. During these activities, the men keep spraying coloured water and coloured powder, abir , at them. Holi, along with many other Hindu festivals, is celebrated in Nepal as a national festival. It is an important major Nepal-wide festival along with Dashain and Tihar Dipawali.

People walk through their neighbourhoods to celebrate Holi by exchanging colours and spraying coloured water on one another. A popular activity is the throwing of water balloons at one another, sometimes called lola meaning water balloon. It is believed that the combination of different colours at this festival takes all sorrow away and makes life itself more colourful.

Over the years, Holi has become an important festival in many regions wherever Indian diaspora were either taken as indentured labourers during colonial era , or where they emigrated on their own, and are now present in large numbers such as in Africa, North America, Europe, Latin America, and parts of Asia such as Fiji.

Holi is a national holiday in Suriname.

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It is called Phagwa festival, and is celebrated to mark the beginning of spring and Hindu mythology. In Suriname, Holi Phagwa is a festival of colour. It is customary to wear old white clothes on this day, be prepared to get them dirty and join in the colour throwing excitement and party. Phagwa is normally celebrated in Trinidad and Tobago on the Sunday closest to the actual date of Phagwah.

It is celebrated with a lot of colour and splendour, along with the singing on traditional Phagwah songs or Chowtal gana. Phagwah is a national holiday in Guyana , and peoples of all races and religions participate in the celebrations. Indo-Fijians celebrate Holi as festival of colours, folksongs, and dances. The folksongs sung in Fiji during Holi season are called phaag gaaian.

Phagan, also written as Phalgan, is the last month of the Hindu calendar.


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Holi is celebrated at the end of Phagan. Holi marks the advent of spring and ripening of crops in Northern India. Not only it is a season of romance and excitement, folk songs and dances, it is also an occasion of playing with powder, perfumes, and colours. Many of the Holi songs in Fiji are around the theme of love-relationship between Radha and Krishna. Holi in Mauritius comes close on the heels of Shivaratri. It celebrates the beginning of spring, commemorating good harvests and the fertile land. It is considered one of the most exhilarating religious holidays in existence.

During this event, participants hold a bonfire, throw coloured powder at each other, and celebrate wildly. Holi is celebrated in many US states. It is usually hosted in temples or cultural halls. Members of Hindu associations and volunteers assist in hosting the event along with temple devotees.

The main celebrations in Medan and Bali.

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Holi is celebrated by the minority Hindu population in Pakistan. Community events by Hindus have been reported by Pakistani media in various cities such as Karachi , [] Hazara , [] Rawalpindi , Sindh , Hyderabad , Multan and Lahore. Holi was not a public holiday in Pakistan from to Holi along with Diwali for Hindus, and Easter for Christians, was adopted as public holiday resolution by Pakistan's parliament in , giving the local governments and public institutions the right to declare Holi as a holiday and grant leave for its minority communities, for the first time. The spring season, during which the weather changes, is believed to cause viral fever and cold.

Many colours are obtained by mixing primary colours. Artisans produce and sell many of the colours from natural sources in dry powder form, in weeks and months preceding Holi. Some of the traditional natural plant-based sources of colours are: [9] [] []. The flowers of palash or tesu tree, also called the flame of the forest, are typical source of bright red and deep orange colours.

Powdered fragrant red sandal wood, dried hibiscus flowers, madder tree, radish, and pomegranate are alternate sources and shades of red. Mixing lime with turmeric powder creates an alternate source of orange powder, as does boiling saffron kesar in water. Mehendi and dried leaves of gulmohur tree offer a source of green colour. In some areas, the leaves of spring crops and herbs have been used as a source of green pigment. Haldi turmeric powder is the typical source of yellow colour. Sometimes this is mixed with chickpeas, gram or other flour to get the right shade.

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Bael fruit, amaltas, species of chrysanthemums, and species of marigold are alternate sources of yellow. Indigo plant , Indian berries, species of grapes, blue hibiscus and jacaranda flowers are traditional sources of blue colour for Holi. Beetroot is the traditional source of magenta and purple colour. Often these are directly boiled in water to prepare coloured water. Dried tea leaves offer a source of brown coloured water. Certain clays are alternate source of brown. Species of grapes, fruits of amla gooseberry and vegetable carbon charcoal offer gray to black colours.

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Natural colours were used in the past to celebrate Holi safely by applying turmeric , sandalwood paste, extracts of flowers and leaves. As the spring-blossoming trees that once supplied the colours used to celebrate Holi have become rarer, chemically produced industrial dyes have been used to take their place in almost all of urban India. Due to the commercial availability of attractive pigments, slowly the natural colours are replaced by synthetic colours. As a result, it has caused mild to severe symptoms of skin irritation and inflammation.

Lack of control over the quality and content of these colours is a problem, as they are frequently sold by vendors who do not know their origin. A study found that malachite green , a synthetic bluish-green dye used in some colours during Holi festival, was responsible for severe eye irritation in Delhi, if eyes were not washed upon exposure. Though the study found that the pigment did not penetrate through the cornea, malachite green is of concern and needs further study. Another study reports that some colours produced and sold in India contain metal-based industrial dyes, causing an increase in skin problems to some people in the days following Holi.

These colours are produced in India, particularly by small informal businesses, without any quality checks and are sold freely in the market.

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The colours are sold without labeling, and the consumer lacks information about the source of the colours, their contents, and possible toxic effects. In recent years, several nongovernmental organisations have started campaigning for safe practices related to the use of colours. Some are producing and marketing ranges of safer colours derived from natural sources such as vegetables and flowers. These reports have galvanised a number of groups into promoting more natural celebrations of Holi. Meanwhile, some commercial companies such as the National Botanical Research Institute have begun to market "herbal" dyes, though these are substantially more expensive than the dangerous alternatives.

However, it may be noted that many parts of rural India have always resorted to natural colours and other parts of festivities more than colours due to availability. In urban areas, some people wear nose mask and sunglasses to avoid inhaling pigments and to prevent chemical exposure to eyes. An alleged environmental issue related to the celebration of Holi is the traditional Holika bonfire, which is believed to contribute to deforestation.

Activists estimate Holika causes 30, bonfires every year, with each one burning approximately kilograms The use of heavy metal-based pigments during Holi is also reported to cause temporary wastewater pollution, with the water systems recovering to pre-festival levels within 5 days. In June , hundreds of concert-goers in Bali District , Taiwan were severely injured in the Formosa Fun Coast explosion , including fifteen who died later in hospital, [] after three tons of corn starch powder mixed with food colouring was sprayed onto the crowd at a high velocity, causing a massive explosion.

The method of powder application at the concert created "an extremely dense dust cloud over the stage and its immediate vicinity". An Asia One report [] states that such an explosion can occur, under certain conditions, not just with corn starch but with powder form of any agricultural product such as "powdered milk, soya flour, cornflour, rice dust, spice powders, sugar, tapioca, cocoa powder, coconut shell dust, coffee dust, garlic powder, grass dust, malted hops, lemon peel dust, oat flour, peanut skins, tea and tobacco", and that "the crucial element is not the composition of the powder itself, but whether it's deployed under high pressure with a flame nearby.

According to Williamson, flammable powder or dust suspended in air in high concentrations is explosive. These limits are dependent on the particular chemical in question. During traditional Holi celebrations in India, Rinehart writes, colours are exchanged in person by "tenderly applying coloured powder to another person's cheek", or by spraying and dousing others with buckets of coloured water. Holi is celebrated as a social event in parts of the United States. A number of Holi-inspired social events have also surfaced, particularly in Europe and the United States, often organised by companies as for-profit or charity events with paid admission, and with varying scheduling that does not coincide with the actual Holi festival.

These have included Holi-inspired music festivals such as the Festival Of Colours Tour and Holi One [] which feature timed throws of Holi powder , and 5K run franchises such as The Color Run , Holi Run and Color Me Rad, [] in which participants are doused with the powder at per-kilometre checkpoints.

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There have been concerns that these events appropriate and trivialise aspects of Holi for commercial gain—downplaying or completely ignoring the cultural and spiritual roots of the celebration. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

This is the latest accepted revision , reviewed on 13 October For the film, see Basanta Utsav film. For other uses, see Holi disambiguation. Hindu spring festival of colours. Main traditions. Vaishnavism Shaivism Shaktism Smartism. Rites of passage.

Philosophical schools.